Northwestern University Bulletin % 4 '//> 0/^ 'ilr.. Dental School Thirty-sixth Annual Announcement 1922-1923 Volume XXH, Number 49 March 25, 1922 Published Weekly by Northwestern University Northwestern University Building CHICAGO Northwestern University EVANSTON and CHICAGO Dental School Thirty-sixth Annual Announcement 1922-1923 Published by the University May, 1922 Dental School Calendar 1922-1923 1922 Sept. 25 Mon. Examinations for advanced standing begin Oct. 3 Tue. Academic year begins Oct. 14 Sat. Last day for entrance in course Nov. 30 Thu. Thanksgiving Day Dec. 23 Sat. Last day of school before Christmas recess 1923 Jan. 8 Mon. First day of school after Christmas recess Jan. 29 Mon. Practitioner's Course begins Feb. 12 Mon. Mid-year examinations begin Feb. 19 Mon. Second semester begins Feb. 22 Thu. Washington's Birthday Feb. 24 Sat. Practitioner's Course ends Apr. 25 Wed. Student's Clinic May 30 Wed. Memorial Day May 28 Mon. Senior examinations begin June 4 Mon. Junior, Sophomore and Freshman examinations be- gin June 14 and 15 Home Coming Clinic Thu. and Fri. June 15 Fri. Commencement Banquet June 16 Sat. Alumni Day at Evanston June 18 Mon. sixty- fifth annual commencement The University ON the last day of May, in the year 1850, there met in the City of Chicago, at the office of Grant Goodrich, 109 Lake Street, near Dearborn, nine men, Richard A. Blanchard, Jabez K. Botsford, Andrew J. Brown, Henry W. Clark, John Evans, Grant Goodrich, Zadoc Hall, Richard Haney, and Orrington Lunt, to con- sider the founding of a university in the vicinity of Chicago. They agreed that "the interests of Christian learning demand the immediate establishment of a University in the Northwest," and appointed a committee to petition the General Assembly for a charter. January 28, in the next year, 1851, Governor French signed the Act that incorporated "the Trustees of the Northwestern University." The name of the corporation has since been changed to Northwestern University. The first Board of Trustees consisted of thirty-six persons, some of whom were representatives of annual conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church and some residents of Chicago or vicinity. The corporation as at present constituted consists of thirty-six trustees elected by the Board, and two elected by each of three annual con- ferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, making a total of forty- two. The charter provides that a majority of the Board shall be mem- bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, but that no particular religious faith shall be required for those who become students at the institution. Amendments have provided that other chartered institutions may become departments of the University; that all property of whatever kind or description belonging to or owned by the said corporation shall be forever free from taxation for any and all purposes; that no spirituous, vinous, or fermented liquors shall be sold under license or otherwise within four miles of the location of the University. After considering several locations in the vicinity of Chicago, the Trustees selected for the University a tract of land on the shore of Lake Michigan, twelve miles north of the heart of Chicago. Here in 1855 the first University building was erected, and about this location has grown up the City of Evanston, a beautiful residential city of thirty thousand inhabitants. The professional schools of Medicine, Law, Dentistry, and Commerce are situated in th'e city of Chicago. Northwestern University Dental School Administrative Officers Walter Dill Scott, Ph.D., LL.D., President of the University. Arthur Davenport Black, M.A., M.D., D.D.S., Sc.D., Dean Thomas Lewis Gilmer, M.D., D.D.S., Sc.D., Dean Emeritus. William James Farquharson, Secretary. The Faculty Thomas Lewis Gilmer, M.D., D.D.S., Sc.D., Professor of Oral Surgery. Arthur Davenport Black, A.M., M.D., D.D.S., Sc.D., Professor of Dental Pathology and of Operative Dentistry. Edmund Noyes, D.D.S., Professor of Dental Jurisprudence and Ethics. James Harrison Prothero, D.D.S., Professor of Prosthetic Dentistry. Twing Brooks Wiggin, M.D., Professor of Physiology'. Ira Benson Sellery, D.D.S., Professor of Orthodontia. Harry Mann Gordin, Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry. Eugene Shaw Willard, D.D.S., Professor of Bacteriology and Dental Pathology. Fred William Gethro, D.D.S., Professor of Operative Dentistry. Herbert Anthony Potts, D.D.S., M.D., Professor of Oral Surgery. William Bebb, M.S., D.D.S., Professor of Comparative Anatomy; Curator of the Museum. Robert Edwin Blackwell, D.D.S., Professor of Operative Dentistry. William Graham Skillen, D.D.S., Professor of Histology. Joseph Emerson Ridgway, D.D.S., Professor of Prosthetic Dentistry. George Bion Denton, Ph.D., Professor of English. Edward Howard Hatton, M.D., Professor of Pathology; Special Research Investigator. Lt. Col. Rex Hays Rhoades, Professor of Military Science and Tac- tics. Karl Leroy Vehe, M.D., Assistant Professor of Anatomy. John Frederick Christiansen, D.D.S., Assistant Professor of Radi- ology; Superintendent of the Clinic. THE DENTAL SCHOOL George Edward Meyer, D.D.S., Assistant Professor of Oral Surgery. Michael Joseph Buckley, D.D.S., Assistant Professor of Ortho- dontia. Charles West Freeman, D.D.S., Assistant Professor of Oral Surgery. Frederick William Merrifield, D.D.S., Assistant Professor of Dental Pathology. Harris Walker McClain, Ph.G., D.D.S., Assistant Professor of Orthodontia. Herbert Scott Ray, D.D.S., Assistant Professor of Operative Den- tistry. Rudolph Oscar Schlosser, D.D.S., Assistant Professor of Prosthetic Dentistry. Leon A. Marks, Ph.G., Assistant Professor of Chemistry. Stanley William Clark, D.D.S,, Instructor in Oral Surgery and in Materia Medica. William Walter Jones, D.D.S., Instructor in Orthodontia. Gottfred Rudolph Lundquist, D.D.S., Instructor in Oral Surgery William L. Winters, B.S., Instructor in Anatomy. Frank Blaine Rhobotham, D.D.S., Instructor in Materia Medica. Homer King Nicoll, A.B., M.D., Instructor in Pathology. Elmer Arthur Johnson, M.D., Instructor in Pathology. Clarence W. Robertson, A.B., M.D., Instructor in Ph3^siology. Myron Bliss Walling, D.D.S., Instructor in Materia Medica. Olga Ruth Buttner, D.D.S., Instructor in Orthodontia and His tolog}'. Ray McKinley Dix, D.D.S., Instructor in Dental Anatomy and Operative Technics. Loren Dana Sayre, D.D.S., Instructor in Prosthetic Dentistry. Arthur Tanner, D.D.S., Instructor in Prosthetic Dentistry. Charles Currier Dodge, D.D.S., Examiner of Patients. Huston French Methven, D.D.S., Instructor in Prosthetic Dentistry. Russell Reed Williams, D.D.S., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. Walter William Dalitsch, D.D.S., Instructor in Prosthetic Teclniics Nels Oynes, D.D.S., Instructor in Prosthetic Dentistr}^ Otto Werner Silberhorn, D.D.S., Instructor in Prosthetic Dentistry. William Leroy Wylie, D.D.S., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. Graham F. Barker, D.D.S., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY William J. Farquharson, Lecturer in Economics. Ty Hee Dang, D.D.S., Instructor in Prosthetic Dentistry. Leo Nolan Hulvey, D.D.S., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. Hector S. Ingram, D.D.S., Instructor in Prosthetic Technics. Theodore Brockhaus Kurtz, D.D.S., Instructor in Prosthetic Den- tistry. Reuben A. Larsen, D.D.S., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. Leonard A. Peters, D.D.S., Instructor in Operative Dentistry. Samuel Maurice Rafish, D.D.S., Instructor in Prosthetic Technics. Edgar Walfred Swanson, D.D.S., Instructor in Operative Technics. William A. Gilruth, D.D.S., Instructor in Operative Technics. STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE FACULTY Executive : Courses of study, general policy, student discipline; ad interim committee. Dean, Secretary, Professor Gilmer, Professor Blackw^ell, Dr. Christiansen. University Council: Dean, Secretary, Professor Noyes. Credentials and Graduate Courses: Credentials for advanced stand- ing, graduate and post-graduate courses. Dean, Secretary, Pro- fessor Gilmer. Library and Museum: Collections, exhibits, library expansion, cata- logues. Professor Bebb, Professor Potts, Professor Skillen. Faculty Affairs: Faculty meetings, programs. Professor Hatton, Professor Potts, Professor Merrifield. Student Relations: Social, athletic, religious, fraternal relations. Professor Christiansen, Professor Gethro, Professor Denton. Student Council: The Student Relations Committee and two mem- bers of each class. Faculty Instruction Groups: See page 22. The Dental School THE DENTAL SCHOOL was founded and is maintained for the purpose of preparing young men and young women in the most thorough manner for the practice of dentistry, and for the promotion of dental science and dental literature. The reputation earned by this School is well shown by the tabu- lation, on page 44, of the geographical distribution of students in attendance during the past year, from forty-one states and eight foreign countries. THE DENTAL SCHOOL The Dental School was organized In 1887 and three years later became a department of the University. In 1896 it absorbed the American College of Dental Surgery and for some years occupied the building on Franklin and Madison Streets, Chicago. It is now located in Northwestern University Building, at the corner of Lake and Dearborn Streets, Chicago, occupying the upper three floors of the building, over 60,000 square feet. The following men are deserving of permanent recognition for their devotion to this School, as evidenced by their work in its development: Doctors Thomas L. Gilmer, G. V. Black, Edmund Noyes, Edgar D. Swain, George H. Cushing, Theodore Menges, C. R. E. Koch, W. V-B. Ames and James H. Prothero. BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT Northwestern University Building is in the transportation center of over three millions of people living within a radius of forty miles, a location especially advantageous for obtaining the great number of clinical patients needed in a dental school. The operative clinic, sufficient in extent to accommodate the great clinic and the offices connected with it, is of the best design of con- struction, consisting of a single room with arched ceiling. It is on the sixth floor, with free light on two sides and abundant skylight. Adjoining the operative clinic is the prosthetic clinic, and on the same floor the special clinic for pulp treatments, the senior prosthetic lab- oratory for crown and bridge work, the laboratory for porcelain and cast metal inlay work, an impression room, two rooms and wait- ing-room for extracting, and a room devoted to radiographic work. There are seven lecture-rooms, three of which are arranged on the amphitheater plan and have seats for 240 students. One of these is for the oral surgery clinic which has a waiting-room for surgical patients, a room for diagnosis and the preparation of patients, and a recovery room with sufficient beds for the temporary care of patients. The other four lecture rooms have seats for 175, 125, lOO, and 75 students. There are eight recitation rooms, each accom- modating thirty-five or more students. Other rooms are the anatom- ical laboratory, which is placed well apart, and the laboratories for prosthetic technics, operative technics, chemistry, biology, histology, physiology, general pathology, bacteriology, materia medica, and for physics; the students' reading-room, the library, and the museum. A new laboratory for scientific research is equipped with every facility for advance study of the many unsolved problems which confront the dental profession. This laboratory has every conven- NORTHWESTER x\ UNIVERSITY ience for bacteriological study, animal experimentation and the study of human material from the general and oral surgery clinics. THE THEODORE MENGES LIBRARY The Library and the adjoining reading-room occupy, together with the attached Journal Reading Room, 5,400 feet of floor space. It is furnished with reading tables and chairs for about one hun- dred students. The Library contains 7,500 volumes of books on dental and collateral subjects; a fine supply of dictionaries and ency- clopedias conveniently placed in the reading-room for easy consulta- tion; and a nearly complete list of the dental journals that have been published in the English language, with about 85,000 duplicate num- bers. The books most used by the students are duplicated, up to six or twelve, and a few to fifteen copies. The books and journals may be used in the reading-room without restriction, and when the duplication of volumes will allow, they may be drawn out as a circulating library. THE G. V. BLACK MUSEUM The Museum, which in many of its sections is the most com- plete collection of illustrative material in existence, is open to inspec- tion and study. The cases are arranged to show the specimens to the best advantage. Recently the very extensive private collection of Dr. William Bebb has been added to the Museum under the title of the Bebb Collection. This collection consists of paleontological and modern animal and human bones, skeletons and skulls; many varieties of preserved fur animals, and a very choice collection of ancient and modern-obsolete dental instruments, tools and equipment; many volumes of rare old books on dentistry in various languages; and engravings, paintings, lithographs, and cartoons illustrative of the development of dentistry. All of these have been arranged in most attractive manner for exhibition and study. The comparative anatomy specimens consist of heads with the teeth, with the exception of the gorilla and chimpanzee, of which there are full skeletons. There is a sufficient number of varieties of each of the several orders to afiford specimens of every kind of tooth form and of every variety of placement in mammals, saurians, and snakes, with a large variety of fishes. The principal specimens of human skulls are, first, an excellent mounting of the separated bones of the adult; second, a fine set of dissections in a series showing the development of the teeth and the roots from the first appearance in the fetus to the full adult devel- THE DENTAL SCHOOL opment, and illustrating the absorption of the roots of the deciduous teeth, the shedding process, and the replacement by permanent teeth; also the absorption of the alveolar processes after the loss of teeth, with the changes that occur in the form of the bones of the jaws from childhood to old age. The Museum contains also a valuable collection of human teeth of abnormal forms; a very full and complete set of specimens illus- trating interproximal wear and the flattening of the points of inter- proximal contact. It is especially rich in casts of cases of super- numerary teeth ; in examples of the very early forms of artificial teeth, of manufactured porcelain teeth, and of dental instruments, illustrating the development in these lines. This collection has been made in the School largely by students and by alumni, and is being continually increased by donations from those who have met with specimens unusual or rare in practice. It also contains a most complete representation of the progress of Dental Hygiene and Prophylaxis as represented by the progressive steps of the development of the toothbrush, and a complete collection of dental instruments and appliances now obsolete in modern prac- tice of dentistry. SITUATION AND SURROUNDINGS The central location of the school and its convenient access from every point affords many and peculiar advantages to its students. It gives them the widest possible range of choice of residence while attending the school, without inconvnience in coming and going. It also gives the school the widest range of territory from which to draw the extensive clinic so necessary to a great dental school. The patients for this clinic come from all parts of the city of Chicago and its suburbs. The personal influence of the students of ^he school, each one of whom draws from his own friends and acquaint- ances, made in and about his place of residence, is an invaluable adjunct to the number who come simply as acquaintances of the school. Patients who come as the friends of students make up the personal clinical practice of the individual student. In this the out-of-town students seem to be in no respect less favored than the student whose home is in the city. This gaining, and holding, a personal clinical practice under the supervision of the instructors in the clinic rooms has come to be one of the features of this school that has a telling effect upon the after-practice of its students. By this plan of work the student not only learns the theory of practice and the manipulations of practical operations in 10 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY dentistry, but he passes at once to the work of real experience in building a practice for himself; in gaining that skill In professional comity and personal manner between himself and his patients, which Is as necessary to him In after years, in drawing together and main- taining a practice, as his knowledge of dental diseases and his skill In their treatment. For these reasons the residence of students in groups In widely different portions of the city is favored. This also gives the benefits of a more homelike life, while giving in the aggregate a far better conception of life in a great city and decidedly better opportunity to draw upon its advantages, while shunning the disadvantages of large gatherings of students in a single locality. Chicago Is a great city and gives many opportunities to the stu- dent who learns to avail himself of them. Lincoln Park on the north offers, besides Its beautiful pleasure grounds, some extensive botanical gardens and winter conservatories, where all manner of plants may be enjoyed and studied; a fine zoological collection, where a large variety of animal and bird life may be studied, and the Museum of Natural History, in which there Is a very large collection of birds, animals and fossil remains of extinct animal life. Jackson and Washington Parks on the south, besides their extensive pleasure grounds, also offer splendid botanical gardens and winter conservatories. The new Field Columbian Museum, located in Grant Park, offers a rare collection of Natural History specimens especially suited for the study of comparative dental anatomy, of modern and ancient skulls and the condition of the teeth in the vari- ous races and types of men In different ages. The admission to this museum Is free to students on presentation of their matriculation tickets to this school. The Art Institute of Chicago Is located within easy walking distance of the School; It offers many free admission hours, making Its cultural opportunities conveniently available.' OTHER LIBRARIES A number of libraries are accessible to students who have taste for study, or for looking up subjects of scientific or literary Interest, or In connection with special studies. The University library collections offer very abundant facilities for students. They are ample in the number of books adapted to the different schools and are so situated as to be easily accessible; generally within the school buildings. They consist of the College Library, the Law Library, the Medical Library and the Theological Library. THE DENTAL SCHOOL 11 Chicago Library (1,144,803 volumes) is on IVIichigan Avenue and Washington Street, five minutes' walk from the School. It is one of the finest libraries in the country. Students may receive books from this libran^ when vouched for by responsible persons known to the officials. This librar>^ has also many branch offices in different parts of the city, from which books may be received on application. These are convenient to many of the boarding places of students. The Newberry Library is ver}- large (400,000 volumes) and, besides general works, has also a large collection devoted to history. It is on North Clark Street and Walton Place, and may be reached in a ten minutes' walk. This is a reference library and books can be used only in its reading rooms. The Johx Crerar Library (475,000 volumes) occupies its own building, corner Michigan Boulevard and Randolph Street, five minutes' walk from the School. It is devoted mainly to the natural, the physical and the social sciences, with their applications, but has one large room containing medical and dental books and periodicals. It is a most excellent collection of books. It is a reference librar}^ and its books are used only in its reading rooms. Admission and Instruction In teaching staff, requirements for admission, curriculum, equip- ment and facilities of every kind, Northwestern University Dental School complies fully with the rules of the Dental Educational Council of America for Class A Dental Schools. Attention is directed to the entrance requirements for the year 1922-23. Dentistry needs more practitioners with broader educa- tion, and all who can afford to do so are urged to take more than one year in a College of Liberal Arts before entering dental school. Extra time devoted to college courses will be of much advantage in the future. entrance requirements for year 192 2- 1923 One year of Liberal Arts is required for admission to the Dental course. A candidate may be accepted on presentation of the follow- ing credits: High School: Fifteen units from an accredited high school or academy, which shall include three units of English, one unit of algebra, one unit of geometry and one unit of chemistry or physics. The remaining nine units may be made up of other subjects in standard High School courses. If physics is not offered for entrance. 12 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY it must be taken during the first year of the dental course. High school chemistry, biology or zoology cannot be substituted for the college credits required in chemistry and zoology. College: Thirty semester-hours in a College of Liberal Arts which is recognized by Northwestern University, which shall include six semester-hours of English, six semester-hours of inorganic chem- istry and six semester-hours of zoology or biology. For the year 1 922- 1 923, one who has thirty semester-hours of credit, but is lack- ing in either one of the special requirements in inorganic chemistry or in zoology or biology, may be accepted with the understanding that such special requirement will be made up before the beginning of the Sophomore year. This School will receive no student who is not present within ten days after the opening day of the session in each year, or in case of illness properly certified by the attending physician, within twenty days after the opening day. It is desirable that students should register early, since the order of assignment of seats in the lecture halls is based on the order of registration. The record of attend- ance is kept from the opening day, and students who may be admitted at a later day will lose their attendance credit for the intervening period. Undergraduate students are not received for special courses. SUMMER CLINICS The clinic rooms will be open all the year for the benefit of students who may wish to gain greater experience in clinical practice under competent supervision. The number of demonstrators during the summer will be ample for the class that may choose to remain at the school. The clinical material is abundant, and an excellent opportunity is afforded for clinical practice. CLINICAL MATERIAL The value and adequacy of the clinical instruction and experi- ence in practice to students is inestimable. The extent of it can be best understood by an examination of the subjoined statement of patients cared for and operations performed during each year from 1913 to 1920. Due to the change from the three- to the four-year course, the classes operating in the clinic in 1919-20, 1920-21 and 1921-22 were unusually small, and it was impossible to care for many persons who applied for clinic service. The number of patients and the operations mentioned for these years are therefore considerably less than the School's average: THE DENTAL SCHOOL 13 Patients Operations For the year 1913-14 iS^oSy 94,068 " '' " 1914-15 17,529 93,793 " " " 1915-16 18,118 96,455 " " " 1916-17 ' 17,868 96,620 " " " 1917-18 17,966 61,898 " *' " 1918-19 11,675 44,986 " " " 1919-20 7,597 40,157 " *' " 1920-21 7,617 32,536 TEXT-BOOKS Text-books and reference books will be on sale in the Library of the school at publishers' prices. There will be a small profit from the sale of these books, which will be used for the benefit of the library. Each student w^ill be required to have the books designated before participating in either recitation or laboratory exercises. Many reference books in the library may be used as needed. INSTRUMENTS The instruments essential to the students in the several depart- ments of the school have been carefully studied and determined. Much care has been taken in the selection of the instrument sets that the variety of forms may be sufficient for the student's needs without being excessive. Close study of this subject and long, careful obser- vation of students and the progress they make in the attainment of manipulative skill show their progress to be closely related to their instrument equipment. Therefore this school must demand that the instrument sets required be obtained by each student as a condition to his continuance in school work. In operative dentistry it is found that a close adherence to the formula plan, in the study of cutting instruments particularly, is essential in teaching the important subject of cavity preparation, and this will be carried out critically in all the departments of the school. This teaching is begun in the technic classes and the same lines of instruction are followed progressively by teachers and demonstrators in all of the departments to the end of the Senior year, the same instrument sets being used throughout the course of study. In prosthetic dentistry and in the several laboratories a similar care as to instruments is maintained. 14 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY ADMISSION TO ADVANCED STANDING FOR YEAR 1 922- 1 923 Students wishing credit for courses parallel to courses required in this School should bring credentials for same, and should present their notebooks. Students who present certificates from other dental schools covering subjects required in this School may be credited with such studies if the credentials are satisfactory to the Dean and to the professors in the respective departments; but credits are not accepted unconditionally. The Faculty reserves the right to examine any applicant for advanced standing, if in its judgment that should be desirable. No student will be accepted by transfer for matriculation in the Sophomore or Junior class unless the previous record is creditable and without a condition. Students will not be accepted by transfer from other schools for matriculation in the Senior class, except in cases in which credentials and other evidence show the applicant to be ex- ceptionally well qualified. Credentials of all students applying for advanced standing must be approved by the Committee on Creden- tials for Advanced Standing. Examinations for advanced standing and for the removal of con- ditions in the Dental course will begin on September 25, 1922 — one week before the course begins — and no make-up examinations will be ffiven at a later time. A schedule of these examinations will be furnished upon request. COURSE FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF DENTAL SURGERY The course covers four years. The year begins on the first Tues- day in October and closes on Commencement Day of the University in June. There are not less than thirty-two weeks of actual instruc- tion given, six days in each week. RESERVE officers' TRAINING CORPS At the request of the Surgeon-General of the Army, a Reserve Officers' Training Corps was established during the year 1 920-1 921. This course is optional in the Freshman and Sophomore years for all students who can pass physical examinations, except aliens. Those who, at the beginning of the Junior year, are given the opportunity and choose to continue through the remainder of the course, must meet all requirements, as in other courses, to graduate. R.O.T.C. students will be required to attend a medical military camp for six weeks during the summer following the Junior year. Each R.O.T.C. student will receive about sixteen dollars per month during the THE DENTAL SCHOOL \5 Junior and Senior years, and thirty dollars per month, also trans- portation, quarters, rations, etc., during the summer camp. Uni- forms will not be worn, and there will be no military training or drills, except in the summer camp. R.O.T.C. graduates will be eligible for service in the Army Dental Corps, but cannot be called for service except in case of war. POST-GRADUATE COURSES Three post-graduate courses, each of four weeks' duration, are given during the year. The first of these begins on the first Monday in February, the second begins on the first Monday in June, and the third on the first Monday in September. Additional short courses of from one week to ten weeks' duration are given throughout the year. A special announcement of these courses will be sent on request. DENTAL HYGIEXISTS' COURSE A dental hygienist's course for young women will be given during the year 1922-23. The course will begin the first Tuesday in Octo- ber, and continue until June. Graduation from high school, or the equivalent, is required for registration. A special announcement will be sent on request. DENTAL assistants' COURSE A dental assistant's course for young w^omen will be given during the year 1922-23. The course will begin the first Tuesday in Octo- ber, and continue until June. Two years of high school, or the equivalent, will be required for admission. A special announcement will be sent on request. DENTAL mechanics' COURSE A dental mechanic's course for young men will be given during the year 1922-23. This course is intended to qualify those w^ho take it for positions as dental laboratory workers. Two years of high school, or the equivalent, will be required for admission. A special announcement will be sent on request. COMBINED COURSES Students who desire to obtain the Bachelor of Science and Doctor of Dental Surgery degrees may enroll on a combined Literary and Dental course, and thus shorten the required time for earning the two degrees from eight to six years. 16 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Students who desire to obtain the degrees of Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Dental Surgery may enroll for a combined medical and dental course, and thus shorten the time of earning these degrees from nine to seven years, which includes one year of hospital interne- ship. Those who enroll for this course must have completed the two required pre-medical years in a College of Liberal Arts, which will entitle them to register for the degree of Bachelor of Science, to be awarded at the conclusion of the dental course. Details regarding the combined courses will be furnished upon application. GRADUATE COURSES The Graduate School of Northwestern University ofifers the de- gree of Master of Science to those graduates of the Dental School who devote an extra year to graduate study along special lines ar- ranged by the Committee on Graduate Study of the Dental School and approved by the faculty of the Graduate School. Information regarding graduate courses will be furnished upon request. REQUIREMENTS FOR A DEGREE The degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery is conferred upon stu- dents recommended therefor by the Faculty of the School. Candi- dates are recommended who have attended the required courses of lectures, who have passed satisfactorily all required examinations in the subjects of study; who have completed the required clinical and laboratory work; who in the judgment of the Faculty are of fit moral character and are twenty-one years of age, and who have discharged in full all financial obligations to the University. HONORS A dental scholastic honor society, the Omicron Kappa Upsilon, was organized in 191 4, upon the initiative of Northwestern Univer- sity Dental School. Membership is awarded to students who throughout their dental course have met every requirement without condition or failure, and whose record of grades earned during their entire course gives them highest rank. Twelve per cent of the graduating class of each year can achieve the honor of such membership. THE DENTAL SCHOOL 17 Fees and Expenses FOR THE YEAR 1 922- 1 923 Matriculation Fee $10.00 This fee is to be paid when a student first matriculates in any department of the University, and covers subsequent matriculations in the same or other departments. It is to be paid but once and is in no case returnable. Registration Deposit ^ each year $10.00 This deposit must be paid when names are enrolled for classes. It will be credited 'on the tuition fee for the current year. It is not returnable in case the student fails to attend. If the first matricula- tion of the student is in the Dental School, the matriculation fee will senT as a registration fee for that year, but the matriculation fee is not credited on the tuition fee. Tuition Fee, each year $250.00 This fee includes the registration deposit, but not the matricula- tion fee. It includes all laboratory fees for equipment and supplies, but not for manuals and notebooks. Each student is provided with a locker for the protection of his private propert}^ Each Freshman will be charged for three new padlocks for his lockers. Each student operating in the clinic will be charged a towel fee each year. Cook County Hospital fee, for Seniors $ 5.00 Final Examination fee, for Seniors 20.00 Time of Payment of Tuition — The tuition fee is payable at the beginning of the school year. It may be paid in tw^o installments, $125.00 at the beginning of the first semester and $125.00 at the beginning of the second semester. If installments are not paid within ten days of the opening of the semester, $2.00 will be added, but in no case may payment be deferred more than thirty days. Payments should be made in currency or in Chicago exchange drawn to the order of Northwestern University. Out-of-town personal checks are not accepted. Refunds — No fees for tuition will be refunded except in cases of sickness. If on account of serious illness a student withdraws from the School before the end of the school year, a share of his tuition fee may be refunded, provided he secures from the Dean a statement of honorable standing, and from a physician a certificate that his health will not permit him to remain in attendance. No application for a refund will be considered unless made within thirty days after withdrawal from the School on account of sickness. 18 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY COST OF BOOKS AND EQUIPMENT The amounts given below are as nearly correct as can be de- termined in advance, owing to the changes which may occur in prices or in the selection of books, instruments and other equipment. As many of the books and almost all of the other equipment listed for each of the first three years are required in the succeeding years, the figures given apply only to those students entering this school as Freshmen. Students entering with advanced standing, or by transfer from other Dental Schools, will be required to purchase whatever may be necessary of the books and equipment listed for preceding years. For the year 1922-23, the School will supply the books and equipment for the several classes. In order to reduce the cost of equipment as much as possible, the School will supply certain items, such as student operating cases, etc., which the student will not need after graduation, upon a rental basis. Every student is required to purchase the complete outfit of books and equipment from the School. The student should come prepared to pay for the complete outfit of books and instruments at the opening of school, in addition to at least the first semester tuition. ESTIMATE OF COST OF BOOKS AND EQUIPMENT FOR EACH CLASS FOR THE YEAR I922-I923 Freshman year, books as per required list, about $ 75.00 Instruments and other equipment, as per required list, about 130.00 $205.00 Sophomore year, books, about $ 30.00 Instruments and other equipment, about 230.00 $260.00 Junior year, books, about $ 40.00 Instruments and other equipment, about 25.00 $ 65.00 Senior year, books, about $ 20.00 Equipment and Cook County Hospital fee 10.00 $ 30.00 ESTIMATE OF TOTAL EXPENSES FOR FOUR- YEAR COURSE Freshman year, matriculation, tuition, books and equipment $ 465.00 Sophomore year, tuition, books and equipment 510.00 Junior year, tuition, books and equipment ^ 3i5-oo Senior year, tuition, final examination fee, books and equipment.... 300.00 TOTAL $1,590.00 THE DENTAL SCHOOL 19 This is an average of about $400.00 per year. The equipment includes practically everything required for a dentist's office, except dental chair and office furniture, so that while the expense for equip- ment in school is considerable, it should not be counted as a school expense, but rather as a part of the expense of office equipment. After the Sophomore year, the expense in addition to the tuition is small, so that the student is likely to be better prepared to meet the cost of office equipment at the time of graduation. UNIVERSITY NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR PERSONAL LOSSES The University is not responsible for the loss of any personal property belonging to any of the students in any building owned by the Universit}^ whether the loss occurs by theft, fire, or an unknown cause. CHARGE FOR BREAKAGE Students will be held responsible for unnecessary damage to or breakage of the apparatus, equipment, furniture or other property of the University. students' extra funds Students who bring with them larger amounts of funds than their immediate requirements necessitate may deposit the same in the University business office, in the rotunda on first floor, and draw on this deposit from time to time as needed, under such regulations as may be prescribed. BOARD AND ROOM Rooms and board may be obtained at about $15.00 a w^eek. Rooms without board, furnished or unfurnished, may be had at about $25.00 a month. A department of the Y. M. C. A. is maintained in the Univer- sity Building, which looks especially to the students' interest in this direction. In case students are compelled to do some outside work to assist them while attending school, this department w^ill also endeavor to secure such employment as the student may be able to do without detriment to his educational w^ork. the university DORMITORIES The University dormitories are situated on the North Campus near the University Gymnasium, and within a five-minute walk to the Elevated trains with direct service to Chicago. Applications for the reservation of rooms should be made to the Secretary' of the Dental School and should be accompanied by a Jeposit of $10. 20 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Courses— 1922-1923 In 19 1 5-1 6, this School adopted the general plan of teaching by the division of classes into small sections for recitation and laboratory periods, in order that the student might receive more thorough in- struction. To accomplish this, the building was remodeled to pro- vide necessary additional rooms and laboratory facilities, and the teaching staff was increased in every department. A general rearrangement of courses has been made to obtain the best possible co-ordination and sequence of related subjects. CURRICULUM FRESHMAN YEAR Hours a Week Lec.-Rec. Lat Anatomy 2 Histology 2 Chemistry, Organic and Physiological 2 Dental Anatomy 2 (ist Sem.) Operative Technics 2 (2d Sem.) Prosthetic Technics 2 < Hours a Year oratory Lec.-Rec. Laboratory 7/2 Aver. 64 240 4 64 128 4/2 Aver. 64 144 6 ( tst Sen- .) 32 96 6 (. 2d Sem .) 32 96 6 64 192 R.O.T.C. (optional) 28 320 896 — 1,216 SOPHOMORE YEAR Hours a Week Hours a Year Lec.-Rec. Laboratory Lec.-Rec. Laboratory Physiology 3 3 96 96 Bacteriology 2 3 64 96 *Pathology 1 3 32 96 Materia Medica and Therapeutics Comp. Dental Anatomy Operative Technics ... Prosthetic Technics ... Orthodontia Technics . , Mouth Hygiene R.O.T.C. (optional) 3 (i Sem.) 32 48 (i Sem.) 2 (i Sem.) 16 32 3 64 96 9 32 288 3 (i Sem.) 16 48 (i Sem.) 25 352 800 — 1,152 *In both Junior and Sophomore courses in 1922-23, thereafter in Sopho- more year only. THE DENTAL SCHOOL 21 *PhvsioIo2;v JUNIOR YEAR Hours a Week Hours Lec.-Rec. Laboratory Lec.-Rec. • I 32 I 32 . 1 3 32 I 3 (i Sem.) 32 I (i Sem.) I (i Sem.) 16 . I 32 . 2 64 • I 3 32 I (i Sem.) 16 I (i Sem.) 16 I (i Sem.) d. 24^ 9H Aver. 33 304 I a Year Laboratory Principles of Medicine... *General Pathology Dental Pathology Dental Radiology Orthodontia 96 48 16 Operative Dentistry Prosthetic Dentistry Principles of Surgery. . . 96 Extraction Clinic 16 Clinical Operative a n Prosthetic Dentistry . . R.O.T.C. (optional) ... 784 1,056—1,360 *In 1922-23, this course will be included in the Sophomore schedule, and will be omitted from the Junior schedule after 1922-23. SENIOR YEAR Hours a Week Hours a Year Lec.-Rec. Laboratory Lec.-Rec. Laboratory ♦Dental Pathology 2 64 Jurisprudence and Ethics.. i (i Sem.) 16 Dental Economics 1 (i Sem.) 16 *Oral Surgery 2 2 64 64 ♦Operative Dentistry 2 32 ♦Prosthetic Dentistry 2 64 Orthodontia 1 (i Sem.) 32 Special Clinics for Divisions of Class, in Extraction, Oral Surgery, Ortho- dontia, Peridental Dis- eases, Operative and , r , ^ Prosthetic Dentistrv .... 2 < l^^ .^. } 64 . . ' I Division J ^ Clinical Practice in Ortho- dontia, Operative and Prosthetic Dentistry .... . 3° 9^ 95^ 34 272 1,088 — 1,360 R.O.T.C. (optional) i •One hour each week will be devoted to seminar work, consisting of the reiding and discussion of themes prepared by members of the class. 22 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Outlines of Courses of Study In order to secure the best possible co-ordination in teaching, the courses of study are arranged in nine groups, and the teaching staff of each group constitutes a faculty group committee. The outlines of courses appear in the order of this group arrangement, which is as follows: 1. Chemistry, physics, metallurgy. 2. Anatomy, histology, embryology. 3. Physiology, materia medica, pharmacology. 4. Bacteriology, pathology, hygiene. 5. Operative dentistry. 6. Prosthetic dentistry. Oral surgery. Orthodontia. Ethics, jurisprudence, economics, history, English. Chemistry — Metallurgy PROFESSOR GORDIN FRESHMAN YEA* *a. Lecture-recitation — Organic Chemistry — Composition and classification of organic compounds and the study of individual groups. First semester. Two hours a week. Professor Gordin and Mr. Marks. b. Laboratory — Qualitative organic analysis and preparation of organic compounds representing important groups. First semester. Class divided into sections, each section three hours a week. Pro- fessor Gordin and Mr. Marks. c. Metallurgy and Quantitative Inorganic Analysis^ Gravi- metric and Volumetric — The examination of metals, alloys, amal- gams, and solders, particularly those used in dentistry. Fusing points and eutectic points. Preparation of low-fusing alloys. Refin- ing of gold and silver and their recovery from scrap materials. First semester. Class divided into sections, each section three hours a week. Professor Gordin and Mr. Marks. *For all lecture-recitation courses, lectures are given to the entire class, and the class is divided into sections of about forty for recitations. As a rule, there are three recitation periods following each lecture. THE DENTAL SCHOOL 23 d. Physiological Chemistjy — Lecture-recitation — The funda- mental principles of the chemistry of the material bases of the body. Second semester. Two hours a week. Professor Gordin and Mr. Marks. e. Laboratory Work in Physiological Chemistry — Character- istic reactions of proteins and carbohydrates. Practical study of salivar}% gastric, and pancreatic digestion. Analysis of teeth and saliva. Urine analysis. The qualitative and quantitative determina- tion of the constituents of normal and pathologic urine. Second semester. Class divided into sections, each section three hours a week. Professor Gordin and Mr. Marks. Anatomy PROFESSOR VEHE FRESHMAN YEAR a. Lecture-recitation — Osteology of the Entire Body — Twelve wTeks, class divided into sections, each section one hour a week. Dr. Vehe and Mr. Winters. b. Lecture-recitation — Syndesmology and Myology — Four weeks, one hour a week. Dr. Vehe and Mr. Winters. c. Laboratory — Human Dissections — The upper or lower ex- tremity and the abdomen are dissected. First semester. Class di- vided into sections, each section two three-hour periods each week. Dr. Vehe, Mr. Winters, and Assistants. d. Lecture-recitation — Angeology, Neurology, Organs of the Senses and Splanchnology — Second semester, one hour a week. Dr. Vehe and Mr. Winters. e. Laboratory — Human Dissections — The head, neck and thorax. Surgical anatomy of the head and neck. Second semester. Class divided into sections, each section two three-hour periods a week. Dr. Vehe, Mr. Winters, and Assistants. Comparative Dental Anatomy PROFESSOR BEBB SOPHOMORE YEAR a. Lecture — Evolution — The meaning of similarity of structure; natural selection ; changes in organs ; correlation of growth between parts; principles of heredity and fixity of species; tooth forms; 24 NORTHWES TE RN UNIVERSITY definitions and descriptions of the varieties of forms; the typical mammalian dentition; classification of the animal kingdom, with concise descriptions of the typical characteristics of each. One se- mester. One lecture or recitation a week. Professor Bebb. b. Laboratory — Small groups in the Museum for study of speci- mens. Histology PROFESSOR SKILLEN FRESHMAN YEAR a. Lecture-recitation — The construction and the use of the microscope. A study of cell structure and functions; the elementary tissues; histology of the organs; circulatory, lymphatic, alimentary tract, and accessory glands, respiratory system, urinary organs and skin. First semester, two hours a week. Professor Skillen. b. Laboratory — A laboratory study of the subjects of the lecture course. First semester. Class divided into sections, each section two two-hour periods a week. Professor Skillen and Dr. Buttner. c. Recitations — During laboratory hours. d. Lecture-recitation — The Dental Tissues — Enamel; the peri- dental membranes; periosteum; bone; mucous membranes and other soft tissues of the mouth. Second semester. Two hours a week for ten weeks. Professor Skillen. e. Lecture-recitation — Embryology — Second semester. Two hours a week for five weeks. Professor Skillen. f. Laboratory — A laboratory study of the subjects of lecture courses d and e. Second semester. Class divided into sections, each section one three-hour period a week. Professor Skillen and Dr. Buttner. g. Recitations — During laboratory hours. Physiology PROFESSOR WIGGIN SOPHOMORE YEAR a. Lecture-recitation — The structure of the elementary tissue; the chemical composition of the body; the blood; the circulation of THE DENTAL SCHOOL 25 the blcx)d. First semester. Two hours a week. Professor Wiggin and Dr. Robertson. b. Lecture-recitation — Respiration — Secretion ; food digestion ; metabolism; nutrition and diet; animal heat; excretion; muscle; nerve physiolog}' ; production of voice. Second semester. Two hours a week. Professor Wiggin and Dr. Robertson. c. Laboratory — Studies of muscles, circulation, and respiration. Class divided into sections, each section one three-hour period a week throughout the year. Professor Wiggin, Dr. Robertson, and As- sistants. JUNIOR YEAR d. Lecture-recitation — The Central Nervous System — Brain; spinal cord ; reproductive organs ; development. One hour a week throughout the year. Professor Wiggin. Principles of the Practice of Medicine PROFFESSOR WIGGIX JUNIOR YEAR a. Lecture-recitation — Because of the intimate connection be- tween diseased teeth and systemic disorders, it is essential that dentists be familiar with the elementary principles of the general subject medicine. This subject includes etiolog}^ diagnosis, symptomatology, course, treatment, and prognosis of a few of the more typical diseases, as well. as those having some relationship to mouth disorders. The mouth symptoms and changes will be especially emphasized. The elementar>' principles of physical diagnosis will be taught in connec- tion with this course, and ample opportunity given to become familiar with the methods of measuring blood pressure and estimating hemo- globin percentage. One hour a week throughout the year. Pro- fessor Wiggin. Materia Medica and Therapeutics DR. CLARK SOPHOMORE YEAR a. Lecture-recitation — Consideration of the history of the rela- tion of drugs and remedies to dentistry ; methods of administration of remedies; action and effect of drugs; dosage; agencies and conditions which modify therapeutic action and physiologic effect; classification 26 N O R T H W E S TE R N UNIVERSITY of drugs according to their therapeutic action ; indications and contra- indications for the use of drugs as remedies for pathologic conditions in the mouth ; poisons, their antidotes, and the antagonistic action of drugs. One hour a week throughout the year. Dr. Clark and Dr. Walling. b. Laboratory — The forms, origin and derivation of drugs; a critical study of physical characteristics from samples of about one hundred drugs and their preparations; the principles of prescription writing and of combining drugs in prescriptions; apothecaries' and metric weights and measures, and transposition from one to the other; solubility and preparation of solutions by percentage, and parts by weight and volume. Class divided into sections, each section three hours a week during one semester. Dr. Clark and Assistants. Bacteriology PROFESSOR WILLARD SOPHOMORE YEAR a. Lecture-recitation — Principles of Bacteriology — The prepara- tion of culture media; management of laboratory cultures; distin- guishing varieties of micro-organisms in laboratory cultures; physi- ology of micro-organisms; poisons produced by micro-organisms; diseases caused by micro-organisms, particularly those of the teeth and mouth ; susceptibility and immunity to diseases. One hour a week throughout the year. Professor Willard. b. Laboratory — Preparation of culture media; planting and management of cultures; separation of species in mixed cultures; deriving pure cultures from infected animals; cultures from saliva, from mucous membranes, and from carious teeth ; staining, mount- ing, and microscopic studies; diagnosis of unknowns. Class divided into sections, each section three hours a week throughout the year. Professor Willard and Assistant. Pathology, General PROFESSOR HATTON SOPHOMORE YEAR* a. Lecture-recitation — Etiology of Disease — Disorders of nutri- tion and metabolism; diabetes; fever; general circulatory disturb- ances; local hyperemia; local anemia; hemorrhage; embolism; infarc- THE DENTAL SCHOOL 27 tion; thrombosis; retrogressive processes; atrophy; infiltrations and degenerations; necrosis; inflammation; progressive tissue changes; neoplasms; infections; granulomata; bacteria, and diseases caused by them. One hour a w^eek throughout the year. Professor Hatton. b. Laboratory — Second semester. Class divided into sections, each section three hours a week. Recitations during laboratory hours. Professor Hatton. Dental Pathology and Therapeutics PROFESSOR BLACK, PROFESSOR MERRIFIELD JUNIOR YEAR a. Lecture-recitation — Pathology and Treatment of the Gin- givae and Peridental Membrane and of the Dental Pulp — Review of the histological structures and physical functions of the tissues, their diseases, and treatment. In this course especial attention will be given to the technical procedures and their application in the clinic. Radiographic studies of cases of peridental disease and apical infections, also of root canal fillings, form an important feature of this course. About 17,000 radiographs w^ere taken for school patients last year. Oral prophylaxis and mouth hygiene — preventive measures which should be employed by dentist and patient — will be presented. One hour a week throughout the year. Dr. Merrifield and Dr. Lundquist. b. Lecture-recitation — Pathology and Treatment of the Dental Pulp — Review of histological structure and functions; hyperemia and inflammation, obtunding sensitive dentin; devitalization; removal; treatment of canals; root filling; aseptic technique; alveolar abscess; chronic osteitis; necrosis of bone; studies of antiseptics and their e£Eect on the tissues; bleaching teeth. One hour a week throughout^ the year. Professor Willard. c Laboratory — Histo-pathological Studies of the Teeth and Their Investing Tissues — The changes which occur in hard tissues in the various dystrophies — atrophy, mottled teeth, white enamel, etc.; in dental caries, secondary dentin and excementosis ; also the changes in the pulp in inflammation and the various forms of calcification; and in the peridental tissues in chronic alveolar abscess and chronic pericementitis. One period of three hours a week during one semes- ter. Dr. Nicoll. *In 1922-23 this course will be included in both Sophonnore and Junior schedules, and thereafter in the Sophomore schedule only. 28 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY d. Clinical Practice — Junior students are required to make one hundred points in pulp treatments and one hundred points in peri- dental treatments in the clinic. SENIOR YEAR e. Lecture-recitation — Pathology of Both the Hard and Soft Tissues of the Teeth — Studies of the dystrophies of the enamel, of erosion, abrasion and dental caries; of the diseases and treatment of the gingivae and peridental membranes, and of the dental pulp. One hour a week throughout the year. Professor 'Black. f. Seminar-Theme — Review of the literature of dental pa- thology and studies in the Research Laboratory. In this course se- lected groups of articles in the periodical literature and subjects in books will be assigned to small groups for seminar study. Groups will also be assigned to the Research Laboratory. Each week a short theme will be presented by a member of the class and discussed by others. One hour a week throughout the year. Professor Black and Professor Merrifield. g. Clinical Practice — Senior students are required to make two hundred and fifty points in pulp treatments and two hundred and fifty points in peridental treatments in the clinic. Radiographic studies of peridental disease and apical infections, also of root canal fillings, will be an important part of the care of cases in the clinic. h. Peridental Membrane Clinic — Each section, one hour a week for five weeks. Professor Black and Dr. Merrifield. Mouth Hygiene; Oral Prophylaxis PROFESSOR BLACK SOPHOMORE YEAR a. Lecture-recitation — This course will include a presentation of the general problems involved in disease of the oral cavity, with a discussion of means of prevention. The various methods of main- taining mouth cleanliness will be discussed, and the technic will be given in detail. Preventive measures which may be employed by both dentist and patient. Mouth hj^giene technique. The relation be- tween operative and prosthetic procedures to the diseases of the soft tissues. Teaching of mouth hygiene in public schools, and dental service in public schools and eleemosynary institutions. Second se- mester. One hour a week. Professor Black. THE DENTAL SCHOOL 29 Operative Dentistry PROFESSOR GETHRO, PROFESSOR WILLARD, PROFESSOR BLACKWELL, PROFESSOR RAY Dental Anatomy, Operative Technics FRESHMAN YEAR a. Lecture-recitation — Descriptive Anatomy of the Human Teeth — Nomenclature. Studies of the maxilla and mandible, with especial attention to the surgical anatomy. First semester. One hour a week. Dr. Ray. b. Laboratory — Studies of the forms of individual teeth; carv- ing the tooth forms in bone or ivory; dissections and studies of the internal parts — pulp chambers and root canals. First semester. Class divided into sections, each section two three-hour periods a week. Dr. Ray and Dr. Dix. c. Lecture-recitation — Instruments and Instrumentation — A study of instrument forms, instrument construction, and the adapta- tion of instruments to the excavation of cavities. Cavity Nomen- clature — A study of the location of cavities in extracted teeth, of the forms of prepared cavities, and of the use of instruments in their preparation. Oral Prophylaxis — Studies of instruments and ma- nipulation. Second semester. One hour a week. Dr. Ray. d. Laboratory — Study of instrument forms; a set of forty-eight excavators made to millimeter scale in brass; preparation of cavities in extracted human teeth, ivory or bone. Second semester. Class divided into sections. Each section two three-hour periods a week. Dr. Ray and Dr. Dix. Operative Dentistry SOPHOMORE YEAR e. Lecture-recitation — Technical Procedures in Cavity Prepara- tion and in Filling Teeth — Cavity nomenclature; cavity preparation; principles, instruments and appliances, and instrumentation; cavity preparation by classes of cavities. Filling materials; instruments and instrumentation, physics of filling operations, finishing fillings. Fill- ing with gold foil, gold inlays, amalgam, cements, gutta-percha. Ex- posure and removal of the dental pulp. Preparation and filling of root canals. Two hours a week throughout the year. Professor Blackwell, Dr. Wylie, Dr. Swanson and Dr. Howell. 30 N O R r H W E S IMUl N U N I V E R S I T Y f. Laboratory — Preparation of cavities and manipulation of the various filling materials. Pulp treatment and the filling of root canals. Instrumentation in oral prophylaxis and in the treatment of diseases of the periodical membrane. These operations are performed w^ith extracted human teeth, placed in position in the jaws of man- ikins, the conditions being as nearly like those met with in actual practice as possible. One three-hour period a week throughout the year. Dr. Swanson and Dr. Howell. JUNIOR YEAR g. Lecture-recitation — Review of Technical Procedures in Fill^ ing Teeth — The Hard Tissues of the Teeth — Studies of the dys- trophies of the enamel, of erosion, abrasion, and dental caries; caries of enamel; caries of dentin; inception and progress of dental caries; conditions of the beginning of dental caries; systemic causes of dental caries; susceptibility from and immunity to dental caries; vital phenomena in dental caries; hyperesthesia of dentin; treatment of dental caries; curative effect of fillings; selection of filling materials. First semester. One hour a week. Professor Gethro. h. Lecture-recitation — The force used in mastication in relation to operative procedures; treatment of dental caries; management of cavities by classes; ''extension for prevention" and its limitations; esthetic considerations; the deciduous teeth, their pathology and treat- ment; the childhood period of the permanent teeth; management of patients. Second semester. One hour a week. Professor Gethro. i. Operative Clinic — Open to Junior students eighteen hours a week during the entire year. Oi>erations amounting to one hundred points required in gold fillings, one hundred points in gold inlays and one hundred points in amalgam fillings. Credit points are given for fillings ranging from one to ten points. The location of the cavity, the operative difficulties encountered, and the excellence of the completed operation determine the amount of points earned in each case. Professor Black, Professor Gethro, Professor Willard, Professor Blackwell, Dr. Wylie, and Assistants. SENIOR YEAR j. Seminar-Theme — Review of the literature of operative den- tistry. For this course selected groups of articles in the periodical literature and subjects in books will be assigned to small groups for seminar study. Each week a short theme will be presented by a mem- ber of the class and discussed by others. One hour a week through- out the year. Professor Blackwell and Professor Gethro. THE DENTAL SCHOOL 31 k. Operative Clinic — Open to Senior students daily throughout the year. Operations amounting to two hundred and fifty points arc required in gold fillings, two hundred and fifty points in gold inlays and two hundred and fifty points in amalgam fillings. Professor Black, Professor Gethro, Professor Willard, Professor Blackwell, Dr. Wylie, and Assistants. 1. Special Operative Clinic — Each section one hour a week for five weeks. Professor Gethro. Prosthetic Dentistry PROFESSOR SCHLOSSER, PROFESSOR RIDGWAY, DR. KURTZ FRESHMAN YEAR a. Lecture-recitation — Prosthetic Technics — This course covers the fundamental principles of denture construction and crown and bridge work, and accompanies the laboratory course. One semester. Dr. Kurtz. b. Laboratory — "Impression taking, model constructing, occlud- ing, waxing, flasking; packing, vulcanizing and finishing partial and full artificial dentures. Construction of crowns and dummies, all metal, and metal and porcelain ; assembling individual crowns and dummies to form bridges. Class divided into sections, each section nine hours a week throughout the year. Dr. Kurtz, Dr. Dalitsch, Dr. Rafish, Dr. Silberhorn and Dr. Oynes. SOPHOMORE YEAR c. Lecture-recitation — Metallography — A descriptive course on the nature and phj^sical properties of metals, especially those used in dentistry, with fundamental principles of their uses; the manipu- lation of metals, swaging, annealing, solders and soldering, welding, tempering. First semester. One hour a week. Professor Ridgway. d. Laboratory — Construction of dies and counter dies; swaging metal bases of German silver; attaching teeth by soldering and by vulcanite; construction of crowns and dummies, all metal, and metal and porcelain ; assembling individual crowns and dummies to form bridges. First semester. Class divided into sections, each section nine hours a week. Dr. Kurtz, Dr. Dalitsch, Dr. Rafish, Dr. Sil- berhorn and Dr. Oynes. e. Lecture-recitation — The physical properties of plaster of Paris and other materials employed in prosthesis. Muscles of mastication ; 32 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY force of the bite; movements of the lower jaw; natural arrangement and occlusion of artificial teeth. Second semester. One hour a week. Professor Ridgway. f. Laboratory — Construction of full metal and partial metal dentures, with teeth attached by soldering and by vulcanite; con- struction and application of clasps to partial dentures; advanced work in crowns and bridges. Second semester. Class divided into sections, each section nine hours a week. Dr. Kurtz, Dr. Dalitsch, Dr. Rafish, Dr. Silberhorn and Dr. Oynes. JUNIOR YEAR g. Lecture-recitation — Review of technique principles outlined in previous courses; application to practical operations in the clinic. The physical properties of plaster of Paris and other materials em- ployed in prosthesis. Muscles of mastication; force of the bite; movements of the lower jaw; natural arrangement and occlusion of artificial teeth. One hour a week. Professor Schlosser. h. Laboratory — Cast aluminum base dentures; celluloid den- tures; banded Logan crowns; baked porcelain crowns; porcelain bridges; continuous gum dentures. Dr. Kurtz, Dr. Dalitsch, Dr. Rafish, Dr. Silberhorn and Dr. Oynes. i. Prosthetic Clinic — Each student is required to carry to com- pletion for patients a number of practical cases, representing each of the various classes of prosthesis, amounting to at least one hundred points in crowns and bridges and one hundred points in denture construction. Dr. Methven, Dr. Sayre, Dr. Tanner, and Dr. Dang. SENIOR YEAR j. Lecture-recitation — Summary of recent methods and appli- ances; application of porcelain in prosthesis; porcelain crowns; porce- lain bridges, full porcelain dentures; gold casting applied to crowns and bridges; removable bridges; repairs to crowns and bridges; review of anatomical occlusion ; cleft palate appliances, splints for fractures. One hour a week. Professor Schlosser. k. Seminar-Theme — Review of the literature of prosthetic den- tistry. For this course, selected articles in the periodical literature and subjects in books will be assigned to small groups for seminar study. Each week a short theme will be presented by a member of the class and discussed by others. One hour a week throughout the year. Professor Schlosser. 1. Prosthetic Clinic — Practical pieces of prosthetic work of all THE DENTAL SCHOOL 33 varieties made and fitted for patients in the clinic. The preparation of roots for crowns and the abutments of bridges; making and set- ting crowns and bridges. The minimum requirement is two hundred and fifty points in crowns and bridges, and two hundred and fifty points in dentures. Dr. Methven, Dr. Sayre, Dr. Tanner and Dr. Dang. Oral Surgery PROFESSOR GILMER AND PROFESSOR POTTS JUNIOR YEAR a. Principles of Surgery — Principles involved in surgical oper- ations: Rooms and equipment, asepsis, care of the operator's hands, the field of operation, instruments, dressings, etc. Care of w^ounds, after treatment, solutions for irrigations. Treatment of hemorrhage, extraction of teeth, minor operations in oral surgery. Examinations and preparation of case histories. Blood examinations, the pulse and temperature. One semester. One hour a week. Dr. Freeman. b. Special Surgical Clinic — Each section, one hour a w^eek for five weeks. Dr. Meyer. c. Extraction Clinic — Each section two hours a w^eek for five weeks. Dr. Freeman. d. Radiology — Lectures and practical instruction in radiographic room. Second semester. Two hours each w^eek. Dr. Christiansen. e. Lecture — Anesthetics — Historical review; state of the patient; nature of operation ; choice of anesthetic ; prolonged dental opera- tions; circumstances of administration; examination of patients; gen- eral anesthetics, local and regional anesthetics, dangers of anesthesia; ether, chloroform, nitrous oxid; nitrous oxid and oxygen for anes- thesia and analgesia; conductive anesthesia. One semester. One hour a week. Dr. Freeman. f. Clinical Demonstrations of Nitrous Oxid and Novocain An- esthesia — Daily in the extracting clinic. Dr. Lundquist and Dr. Clark. Each Junior student is required to make one hundred points in surgical treatments and one hundred points in extractions. SENIOR TEAR g. Lecture-recitation — Surgical bacteriology; inflammation; sup- puration; wounds; hemorrhage; necrosis; chronic osteitis; disease of the maxillary sinus; resection of roots; tetanus; ankylosis; arthritis; facial neuralgia; fractures; dislocations; extraction of teeth; malposi- 34 N () R 'r H W E S T K R N U N I V K R S I 'V Y tion of third molars; impacted teeth; replantation, transplantation, and implantation of teeth; cleft palate and harelip; affections of the lips, tongue, and mouth; tumors; odontomes; ranula; cysts; aneu- risms. One hour a week throughout the year. Professor Gilmer and Professor Potts. h. Seminar-Theme — Review of the literature of oral surgery, with especial attention to the developments of the European War in maxillo-facial surgery. For this course, selected groups of articles in the periodical literature and subjects in books will be assigned to small groups for seminar study. Each week a short theme will be presented by a member of the class and discussed by others. One hour a week throughout the year. Dr. Freeman. i. Surgical Clinic — Two hours a week throughout the year. Professor Gilmer, Professor Potts, Dr. Meyer, Dr. Freeman and Assistants. Nurses from St. Luke's Hospital. The after-treatment of cases will be by students, under direction of Professor Gilmer. j. Surgical Clinic at Cook County Hospital — Two hours each week throughout the year for a section of the class. Professor Potts. k. Surgical Clinics at St. Luke's Hospital — Sections of the class will be called at frequent intervals to attend clinics at St. Luke's Hospital. Professor" Gilmer, Professor Potts. Each Senior student is required to make two hundred and fifty points in surgical treatments. I. Clinic in the Extraction of Teeth — Special extraction clinic for each section, one hour a week for five weeks. Dr. Freeman, Dr. Lundquist, Dr. Clark. Each Senior student is required to make two hundred and fifty points in extractions. m. Clinical Demonstrations of Nitrous Oxid and Novocain An- esthesia — Daily in extracting clinic. Dr. Lundquist, Dr. Clark and Dr. Christiansen. n. Radiology — Daily clinical instruction. Dr. Christiansen and Assistants. . Orthodontia PROFESSOR SELLERY SOPHOMORE YEAR a. Laboratory — Constructing and tempering taps and dies of steel; drawing wire and tubing suitable for the construction of or- thodontia appliances. Impressions and models. Making of pinch bands, clamp bands and retainers; application of these to models on THE DENTAL SCHOOL 35 the manikin. First semester. Three hours a week. Dr. McClain and Dr. Jones. JUNIOR YEAR b. Lecture-recitation — General Principles in Orthodontia — Tak- ing impressions and making models; fitting of appliances. Causes of malocclusion; principles of treatment; methods of retention. Regu- lating appliances. Anchorages, jack screws, levers, traction screws, expansion arch and combinations, split plates, reciprocal anchorages, retention. Illustrated with models, with movable teeth and enlarged appliances. Stereopticon views, illustrating progressive regulation and final fixation. One hour a week throughout the year. Pro- fessor Sellery and Dr. Buckley. c. Clinic — Open to students throughout the year for the cor- rection of cases in practice. Each Junior student is required to make one hundred points in orthodontia. Professor Sellery, Dr. Buckley and Dr. Buttner. SENIOR YEAR d. Lecture-recitation — Occlusion and Facial Art — Etiology, classification, diagnosis of malocclusion. The alveolus and alveolar processes, the p'eridental membranes, and use of models. First semes- ter. One hour a week. Professor Seller^' and Dr. Buckley. e. Clinic — Open to students throughout the year for the cor- rection of cases in practice. Each member of the class is required to make two hundred and fifty points in orthodontia.. Professor Sellery, Dr. Buckley and Dr. Buttner. f. Orthodontia Clinic — Each section one hour a week for five weeks. Professor Seller}^ Dental Jurisprudence and Ethics PROFESSOR NOYES SENIOR YEAR a. Lecture — Ethics — Elementary principles of ethics; profes- sional ethics; state laws relating to dentistry; Illinois dental law; dental jurisprudence; general review. One semester, one hour a week. Professor Noyes. 36 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Dental Economics DR. ARTHUR D. BLACK SENIOR YEAR a. Lecture — Dental Economics — This course embraces practice building, methods of obtaining and retaining patients, business rela- tions between the dentist and his patients, fees, accounts, records of operations, presentation and collection of accounts, methods of econ- omy in the conduct of an office. One semester, one hour a week. Dr. Arthur D. Black. Technical Composition PROFESSOR DENTON SOPHOMORE YEAR a. Long Theme — The preparation of professional papers; the use of libraries, bibliographies, footnotes. Second semester, one hour a week. Professor Denton. JUNIOR YEAR b. Long Theme — Each member of the class will prepare one long theme compiled from the periodical and other dental literature. Professor Denton. SENIOR YEAR c. Seminar-Theme — All reviews prepared by members of the class for the seminars in oral surgery, dental pathology, prosthetic dentistry and operative dentistry will be criticized before they are read before the class. Conferences with the student essayists and discussers. Professor Denton. For information regarding the School, address Northwestern University Dental School, 31 W , Lake St., Chicago. THE DENTAL SCHOOL 37 Dental School REGISTER OF STUDENTS, I92I-I922 SENIORS Barcroft, Dwight Taylor Illinois Black, Rhea Edwin Illinois Brandser, Robert Wisconsin Brooks, Malcolm P Illinois Burr, Clarence Henderson. . .Canada Coleman, William Arthur Iowa Comee, Cyril C Wisconsin Cook, Jean Indiana Crabtree, Clayton Mack Illinois Creviston, Ralph R Indiana Davis, Paul K Illinois Evanson, Louise Illinois Frerichs, Arthur W... South Dakota Grahn, Earl G. W Illinois Handler, E. David Illinois Hansen, Ellen Gurine Illinois Hansen, Frederik L Illinois Hatcher, Oliver P Tennessee Hill, Lloyd B Kansas Hockings, Robert Burnell. Michigan Howard, Gordon M Illinois Isay, Morton G Illinois James, Charles S Georgia Jostes, Benedict H Illinois Kaep, Henry J Iowa Kalb, Thaddeus F Indiana Kobrzynski, Harriet E Illinois Kopperud, William. . .North Dakota Moe, Harold South Dakota Munn, James A Canada Newbury, Wallace J Wisconsin Nicoll, Sydney Douglas. .. .Scotland Nortell, Harry Illinois O'Hara, John Sterling. .. .Michigan Pendergast, William B Illinois Peters, Wilfred S Illinois Polisky, Jacob Illinois Prince, George M Illinois Probst, Edmund Aloysius. . .Indiana Rappaport, Bernard Illinois Reese, H. Cortland Illinois Ringland, Kenneth W Illinois Runyan, George W Indiana Scher, Jacob Illinois Schumaker, James Robert. . . .Illinois Seim, Roy H Wisconsin Serritella, William Illinois Silver, Saul Illinois Skebelsky, Martin S Illinois Skrentny, Matthew Indiana Smith, Geo. L Canada Smith, J. Robert Colorado Specter, Wilmont E Indiana Sprunt, William H Idaho Stephenson, Lindale Van. New York Sturdavant, Forest Illinois Thompson, David John Illinois Wagner, J. Harold Illinois Wanamaker, Frank H. .Washington Wasson, Joseph S Illinois Wheale, John T Indiana Williams, G. Hewett Oklahoma Wood, Norton J Michigan Wright, Katie Tennessee JUNIORS Adams, W. Mahlon. .. .Washington Anderson, L. P Utah Balbach, George Jacob Illinois Balhatchett, George W Illinois Bank, Carl H Michigan Barlow, William Anderson. .Illinois Baxter, Glenn B Iowa Bayne, Neil E Montana Benson, William H Illinois Bentz, Allan D Utah Berg, Stanley Hjalmer. North Dakota Bernheim, Max G Illinois Bettenhausen, L. G Illinois Boone, Glen C - Illinois Boucher, Orlando Illinois Bowker, Harry C Illinois Boyd, John Bedford Illinois Brown, Daniel P Illinois 38 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY JUNIORS — Continued Brown, Donovan Ward Indiana Bruce, Jack Edward, Jr. .Wisconsin Bruce, Ray Wisconsin Bult, Lawrence Illinois Burke, Joe F South Dakota Cameron, Charles A Canada Campbell, John Nelson North Dakota Caplan, Julius Indiana Casewell, Cuthbert C Canada Chisholm, Reginald H Virginia Clearwater, Edgar B Iowa Cohn, Hymen J Illinois Collins, D. H South Dakota Corrin, Roger J Michigan Crawford, Thomas C. .Pennsylvania *Crosthwaite, Leonard Illinois Cunat, Miles J Illinois Curtis, Merrill H District of Columbia Curtis, Nathaniel Arizona Dameron, Logan D Arizona Deahl, Elmer Illinois Diehl, Val C South Dakota Dobson, Andrew E Iowa Donovan, Leo J Illinois Drummond, Harold C. .. .Michigan Dunn, Howard G Iowa Dunsworth, Leon B Canada Ericson, Marvin G... North Dakota Evans, Phillip S Idaho Fellows, Earl Wiley Illinois Fisher, Wilfred E North Dakota Foss, William J Illinois Foster, Howard S Illinois Gaul, Edward C Illinois Gidley, Gerald H Indiana Gillespie, Walter James Utah Gillmeister, Benjamin M. .. .Illinois Gilroy, John J Illinois Gjerset, Maurice J Iowa Gleave, Leo E Utah Gomez, Roberto. .. .Central America Gray, Charles Montana Gray, Emory Speer Illinois Grundy, George Benj Oklahoma Gunther, Frank M Illinois Hadden, Gilbert E Illinois Halbeisen, Harold J.. North Dakota Hamilton, Harold F. .. .Washington Hammerschmidt, E, C Illinois Hanson, Clarence A Minnesota Hartley, Harry A Iowa Hayelka, Rudolph Illinois Herse, Richard L Nebraska Hess, Elmer R Illinois Hines, Hubert B Illinois Hoag, Eugene E Illinois Holzberger, Lloyd F Montana Hoxey, Floyd L Illinois Huffman, Luverne M. North Dakota Hurwitz, Albert Ervin. .Washington Huschka, Louis E North Dakota Hutt, Spence Atwell Illinois Jackson, Milon B Michigan Jensen, L. Wallace Utah Johnson, Melvin Michigan Johnson, Otto M Illinois Jones, Fenton Carlyle, Jr Iowa Kern, Roy Anton Illinois Kidder, Wayne Michigan Killip, Merrill H Illinois Kolling, William Illinois Korssell, Harold M Illinois LaCount, Paul Indiana Laederach, Walter Edward. .Illinois Lahr, Elven Scott..'. Indiana Lanser, Matthew T Iowa Lawson, Ralph Jack Ohio Lewis, William E Missouri Lindstrom, Carl Illinois Livingstone, Donald M Canada Lugnegard, Gustav Walter. .Sweden Lynch, William J Indiana Lyons, Vaughan D Idaho Lyons, Wayne Charles Illinois Magee, Roy M Oklahoma Maika, Henry Frederick. . .Nebraska Mastrud, Albert F North Dakota Mathews, Oliver S Illinois McCarthy, Ignatius Nebraska McDaniel, Donald J Illinois McEwen, Robert A Illinois McLaughlin, Willard Nebraska McNicol, Thomas K Canada *Meese, Raymond E Indiana Miller, Floyd H Illinois Minshall, Lawrence K. . .Wisconsin Mudra, James, Jr Illinois Murray, Horatio S Wisconsin ♦Matriculated, but not in attendance. THE DENTAL SCHOOL 39 JUNIORS — Continued Neperud, Marvin S Wisconsin New, Harland Illinois Nicolson, Joseph H Washington, D. C. Nordlie, Arndt B Illinois Northcutt, Claude Oklahoma Olson, Reuben M Illinois Oilman, Harold C Missouri Ong, George Illinois Oshman, Herman Peter Texas Pacey, Walter Illinois PaflFord, Ernest M Arizona Pearson, Herschel E Idaho Peiser, Henry Irvin Tennessee Peterson, Clarence H Illinois Peterson, Clyde A. . . .South Dakota Plekenpol, Lester Jerome. Wisconsin Poliak, Meyer S Colorado Powers, John R Illinois Quiter, R. I Nebraska Reeder, Daniel M Illinois Robbins, William M.. North Dakota Roberts, Albert Lincoln Illinois Roe, Arthur Illinois Rose, William Alexander. .Kentucky Robinson, Daniel K Michigan Ruggles, Leonard B Michigan Ryan, Leonard L Canada Sanderson, Leon T Canada Schaefer, Roy C South Dakota Schmidt, William George F.Canada Schow, Willes Idaho Scroggin, Guy F Illinois Seaborg, Axel A Illinois Shackelford, J. Gordon Arizona Sharp, Baxter Reed Illinois Sheppard, Clyde C Illinois Siegman, Wesley West Virginia Silj an, Sigurd South Dakota Skehar, Harry George Canada Skuse, James B Illinois Smith, Wilbur S .Illinois Snyder, Robert Wisconsin Soffel, Quintin I Illinois Spencer, Harwood Canada Spencer, Mark C Iowa Steiner, Charles J Indiana Stern, Henry Illinois Stevenson, George A Illinois Strong, Lawrence Illinois Sugar, Milton Harry Indiana Sutherland, H. Ross Canada Swindell, Merle Rex Michigan Taylor, Ray H Illinois Teaff, James W Ohio Thompson, Laurence B Illinois Thomson, Lloyd C. . . .North Dakota Tittle, Felix S Illinois Touzel, Mervyn Canada Townsend, Gerald W Illinois Ullestad, Rolf J Illinois Vangsnes, Olaf Illinois Webb, William M Illinois Wellenstein, Melchior ...Minnesota Wellington, Charles W Canada Wells, Paul H Vermont Wescott, Randall L Illinois Westphal, Fred M Illinois White, Arthur C New York Wiesjohn, Alvin E Indiana Williams, Roger S Wisconsin Williams, Russell Illinois Willson, Kenneth F... North Dakota Wisnow, Helen Illinois Wojniak, Jos. S Illinois Wolfe, Lynn B West Virginia Wood, Gary R Indiana Wright, Thos. R Iowa Wurth, Albert J Ohio Zagers, Edward Michigan Zee, T. Y China Zimmer, William P Illinois SOPHOMORES Adams, Samuel P., Jr Illinois Ahlers, Fred W Illinois Altenberg, Nathan H Illinois Anderson, Carl Orlando South Dakota Anderson, Carl William Illinois Anderson, Earl Francis North Dakota Bates, Charles William Illinois Belinski, John L Illinois Bell, James R Illinois Bellagrotzky, Emanuel Illinois Berman, Harold Illinois Berman, Sidney D Illinois Berry, Arthur L Illinois Betzer, Chester Harold Illinois Bigelow, Rolland Arlington.. .> Michigan 40 N O R 1^ H W E S T E R N U N I V E R S II' Y SOPHOMORES — Continued Bill, Edith H Maryland Blattberg, Benjamin Illinois Bloonnberg, Samuel L Texas Blumenthal, Morris Indiana Bodfish, S. Burr Michigan Boelke, Clarence Henry . .Minnesota Brandt, Lloyd Minnesota Brown, Frank J Indiana Brozowsky, Sam Indiana Bruggeman, Cecil R Iowa Bunta, Joseph Douglass Illinois Bush, Orville John Illinois Butkin, Max R Illinois Carnahan, Chester Louis Illinois Chadovich, Peter Wisconsin Churchill, Lewis D Illinois Cibock, Charles Emil Indiana Cibock, Lewis Martin Indiana Cisar, George Edward Illinois Cohen, Isador S Illinois Colbiornsen, Kjeld S Canada Conarty, Ansel Indiana Cooper, Herbert William. Australia Cooper, John Edmond. .. .California Crum, Arthur L Iowa Dahl, Rolf H South Dakota Davis, John W., Jr Texas Davis, Miles Dewey, Jr. . .Arkansas Denison, William Russell. . .Indiana DeRose, Amedeo Wisconsin Dickinson, Edward Turner. Montana Dillon, Leigh Wisconsin Donahue, Joseph A Iowa Donlevy, Webster Illinois Doyle, William B Minnesota Dumas, Paul L Tennessee Edwards, Robert F...West Virginia Ehn, K. Percy Illinois Ellis, Raymond Dana Illinois Emerson, Arthur C Wisconsin Epstein, Stanley B Ohio Erickson, Rudolph Michigan Eshelman, Boyd Edward. .. .Indiana Evers, Henry A., Jr Wisconsin Fanning, Harold R New York Fishbein, Louis H Illinois Fisher, Max Pierce. . .South Dakota Fitzgerald, Percy A Illinois Flaten, Gilbert W Minnesota Fleming, Thomas Elden. .. .Canada Foutz, Leslie Utah Francis, Harry B Illinois Frangenheim, Raymond Illinois Fuqua, John William Illinois Garvin, Franklin M Texas Genser, Arnold A Illinois Gevirtz, Sydney E Illinois Ghent, Charles Leslie Canada Gleason, Gale Robert Michigan Gleich, Gordon J Michigan Goldberg, David Illinois Goldbranson, Kent L Utah Gordan, Samuel George Illinois Grandle, H. Marion Kansas Greenebaum, Moe New York Groskie, Joseph Illinois Guerrero, James Illinois Guthridge, John R Canada Haag, Ivan M., Jr Indiana Hanson, Edward North Dakota Hanson, Henry O Wisconsin Hanson, John Tillman. North Dakota Harmke, Carl Illinois Haven, S. Rush, Jr Illinois Headen, Leon W Alabama Hedenschoug, Wright Illinois Heininger, Sylvan B Illinois Henderson, Harvey Joseph. Indiana Henes, Raymond Arthur . .Michigan Hippaka, Eino Gabriel. . .Minnesota Horwitz, Max S Illinois Hoskins, George Alexander. Canada Hubbell, Maurice Lavern. Michigan Humpidge, Walter C Illinois Jackson, James O Pennsylvania Jindrich, Ervin Illinois Joaillier, Constantin J. Greece Johnson, Carroll William. . .Illinois Johnson, Melvin A Indiana Johnson, Nels Kenneth. South Dakota Johnston, William Minnesota Jordan, William A Minnesota Kanute, Charles Malcolm.... Wisconsin Karnick, Ralph Leonard North Dakota Kella, Joseph Illinois Kelley, James Joseph Illinois Kelly, Charles Wisconsin Kennedy, William L Alabama Klein, Nathan ..New York Kuchinky, Michael J Ohio Kuchler, Frank George, Jr.. Illinois Lahr, E. Glenn Indiana Lane, Alvan H Illinois Lane, John Frederick Canada THE DENTAL SCHOOL 41 SOPHOMORES — Continued Larkey, Clarence William. Michigan Lautenschlager, Frank. South Dakota Liu, John Illinois Lombardo, Anton Palmer. .. .Illinois Lord, DeForest Dodge. New Mexico Marcero, Clayton John. .. .Michigan Marshall, Hugh B Wisconsin Mast, Otto L Indiana Mathews, Edwin Carl Indiana Matteson, C. D Wyoming McCaskill, James W Georgia McDermott, Joseph Myron... Wisconsin McElwain, J, Robert Wisconsin McXamara, Lvle W... South Dakota Miller, Roy G Illinois Misher, Kenneth William. . .Illinois Morrison, Gordon W Canada Moyes, William S Utah Murphy, Kenneth Iowa Nakamura, Masao Hawaii Nelson, Henry W Illinois Newell, Robert Nebraska Newman, Caesar E Illinois Newman, Marcus Illinois Newman, Meyer Illinois Nichols, Raymond Eugene. . .Illinois Nordberg, Harry Utah Nussdorfer, Elmer Chris. .Michigan O'Keefe, John Joseph. North Dakota Olson, Frank B Illinois Orminski, John Charles Illinois Ovens, Hugh James Canada Payne, Milton New York Pearson, Earnest Allen Utah Piirto, Jacob Arthur Michigan Pinkerton, Robert George. . .Indiana Pohle, Max WisconsiYi Powell, Raymond H Illinois Quanrud, Clarence M Minnesota Quayle, Lyle S Michigan Ranfranz, Oscar E Minnesota Raz, Lope G Philippine Islands Rethwill, Wesley H Minnesota Rivkin, Samuel B Illinois Roeser, Arnold Nicholas. .Minnesota Rosen, Nathan H Illinois Rowley, Samuel J. D Canada Ruesch, William E Illinois Rusdal, Sigurd C Wisconsin Rutten, Ruben Joseph. North Dakota Sansone, Hugo E Illinois Schnaidt, Theodore B. South Dakota Schulz, Fred Illinois Scott, Winfield Texas Shawgo, Clyde H Illinois Sheafer, George Illinois Shields, Roy C Indiana Simonis, Wesley O Wisconsin Sklodowski, Leo C Illinois Small, Elliott B. W. I. Smith, Charles E North Dakota Smith, Emerson L Canada Smith, Everett Donald Michigan Smith, Lester E Michigan Smith, Richard Clayton.. . .Michigan Smith, Roy Pomphrette Indiana Smith, Wayne B Iowa Snyder, Richard H Illinois Solberg, Francis A Minnesota Starksen, Cliflford Merle South Dakota Stearns, Clarence F Illinois Stearns, Eugene Marion Illinois Stephens, James D Indiana Struhall, R. L Texas Sugrue, James Illinois Supensky, Phillip Illinois Swartz, Aaron E Illinois Syverson, Howard Wisconsin Taber, Albert Warren Illinois Tang, Chu Fook Hawaii Taufman, Harvey R Wisconsin Thompson, Charles M Washington, D. C. Thompson, Norman G Illinois Turbow, Morris O Illinois Tweedle, Thomas Wedmore. South Dakota Twelves, Ralph Utah Valentine, Holger Utah Vertuno, Daniel Illinois VonRuden, Henrv B Wisconsin Walker, Charles' E Wisconsin Ware, Glenn J Illinois Watts, Elmer E Indiana Wesselhoeft, Herbert D Illinois West, Marie Eugenie Antoin- ette Illinois Wilson, Leon Illinois Winiecke, Edward Louis. .Michigan Winning, Carl Duane Iowa Wistain, Lincoln Illinois Woods, Frank N Canada 42 N C) R ^r H W E S T E R N L N I V E R S 1 i Y SOPHOMORES — Continued Woolley, Leland Smith Idaho Zeiss, Elmer Clarence Uliaoit Yalowitz, Myer Illinois Zuber, Harry G Illinoii FRESHMEN Anderson, Lawrence C.G.Wisconsin Bailen, Albert A Illinois Baldridge, Roy R Illinois Barkdull, Stewart Idaho Beasley, Anthony Bryant. . .Georgia Bengston, Ralph Illinois Berlin, Samuel Illinois Boardman, George .Illinois Buchanan, William A Illinois Bunta, Albert Rab Illinois Cooper, Bernard J Illinois Coughlin, Donald M Illinois *Currie, Harold M.... North Dakota Davis, Stanley E Wisconsin Dobbs, J. Lowry Ohio *Douglas, Bert B Texas Dowling, Frank E Illinois Duffy, James J Illinois Eisenhutt, Leo Lawrence Indiana Gibson, Arthur James Michigan Hulvey, Donald Eugene Illinois Johnson, Alfred L Minnesota Johnson, Waldo T Illinois *Kellehar, John A Illinois Kitzmiller, Elmore F Illinois Koenig, Reuben H Iowa Lewis, William Glenn Illinois Livingston, Frank Iverson. .Canada Lusk, Emory J Illinois Malwitz, Roland K Utah Mammen, Donald H Illinois Marshall, John Neil Canada McMillan, Elmer Illinois Miller, Nathaniel Peyton. .Michigan Morris, Edwin Bleakley Illinois Morris, John Springer Arkansas *Owyang, George T California Pulley, Ralph B Illinois *Purdy, Max B North Dakota Reagan, Charles A Nevada Ridpath, Thomas W Canada Ripley, Aurin Minott Illinois Roble, Melvin North Dakota Rosoff, James Louis. . .North Dakota Rothenberg^ Edward J. . . .New York Rothwell, Allen Illinois Schiff, Abe Leo Illinois Schultz, Carl E Illinois Semotiuk, Wasyl Illinois Sewright, Dewey Wayne South Dakota Simon, Clarence E Illinois Smoot, Robert Darrel Missouri Stafford, Edwin Lucian Illinois Streitmatter, B. Mae Illinois Tarkington, Charles Monroe. Illinois Vincent, John Arthur Australia *Wagstaff, Nicholas A Illinois Winograd, Moses George. New York Witkowski, Charles B Illinois Woolley, Hoyt Bridge Idaho POST-GRADUATES, I92I-I922 Adams, W. Claude, D. Arnold, A. L., D.D.S. . Bagby, W. B., D.D.S. Baker, E. C, D.D.S... Bean, L. G., D.D.S. .. Bolster, S. K., D.D.S. Bridge, W. G., D.D.S. Busch, Ernest, D.D.S. Cadmus, John H., D.D Campbell, J. C, D.D.S Carter. W. L., D.D.S. D.S . . . Oregon Corriil, A. W., D.D.S Ohio . . .Minnesota Dearborn, Helen T., D.D.S. . . .Iowa Missouri DeVera, Isidoro L., D.D.S. . . . Indiana Philippine Islands Ohio Ducote, Clifton G., D.D. S.Louisiana Ohio Dunster, Frank E., D.D.S. .Michigan Massachusetts Exon, George E., D.D.S Kansas Missouri Goodwin, Nellie, D.D.S Ohio .S Illinois Harper, Robert N., D.D.S . . . Virginia Missouri Harris, R. E.. D.D.S Indiana Missouri Hill, V. E., D.D.S Texas ♦Matriculated, but not in attendance. THE DENTAL SCHOOL 43 POST-GRADUATES Hoeffel, Paul. D.D.S Illinois Howland, Wells, D.D.S. New York Imber, William J., D.D.S .... Illinois Johnston, Roy R., D.D.S Pennsylvania Jones, A. H., D.D.S Missouri Jung, Leo H., D.D S Illinois Kelsey, James H., L.D.S., D.D.S., M.D.S Pennsylvania Kirchoff, E. H., D.D.S Indiana Kurtz, Theodore B., D.D.S. .Illinois Magee, Paul, D.D.S Iowa Marschalk, L. V. B., D.D.S... Washington, D. C. McHarg, R. J., D.D.S Canada Merritt, J. P., D.D.S Kansas Miller, H. C, D.D.S Kansas — Continued Phillips, Herbert L., D.D.S.. .Illinois Rambo, M., D.D.S Georgia Ratliff, A. T., D.D.S Kentucky Rider, Charles, D.D.S Nebraska Robb, H. G., D.D.S Canada Ross, Herbert, D.D.S Canada Rovelstad, Henrv R., D.D.S. .Illinois Satterfield, Elzer Z., D.D.S... Alabama Scanlan, Walter R., D.D.S. .. Illinois Schilling, Charles S., D.D.S Ohio Schmitt, J. C, D.D.S Kentucky Scruggs, J. C, D.D.S Kentucky Sharp, Harry Lee, D.D.S Iowa Snow, J. M., D.D.S Illinois Snyder, H. C, D.D.S Illinois Wengorovius, W. R., D.D.S.. New York 44 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS Seniors Alabama Arizona Arkansas Australia British West Indies California Canada 3 Central America China Colorado i District of Columbia Georgia i Greece .' Hawaii Idaho I Illinois 31 Indiana 8 Iowa 2 Kansas i Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Massachusetts Michigan 3 Minnesota Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Mexico New York i North Dakota i Ohio Oklahoma i Oregon Pennsylvania Philippine Islands Scotland i South Dakota 2 Sweden Tennessee 2 Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington i West Virginia Wisconsin 4 Wyoming 64 Juniors 4 79 II 10 Sopho- mores 2 Fresh- men Post- Ciraduates 197 60 THEDENTALSCHOOL 45 Northwestern University Dental School Alumni Association OFFICERS FOR 1 92 1 -1922 John H. Cadmus, President, Chicago. J. H. Hospers, First Vice-President, Chicago. Harold S. Smith, Second Vice-President, Chicago. James L. Morlan, Secretary and Treasurer, 25 E. Washington St., Chicago. BOARD OF DIRECTORS G. G. Knapp, Chairman, Chicago. G. E. Meyer, Chicago. Kenneth Bignell, Chicago. The annual Home-coming Clinic is held on Thursday and Friday preceding Commencement each year at the University Building. The Association publishes a quarterly Journal, which is a medium for the circulation of articles of interest to Northwestern alumni and for the exchange of friendly greetings. The Alumni Associa- tion and the Journal exist for the purpose of maintaining and ad- vancing all things of mutual interest to the alumni and the School. All members of the Association in good standing will receive the Journal. Any graduate of the Northwestern University Dental School may become a member of the Alumni Association upon pay- ment of the membership fee of one dollar and dues of one dollar annually. We ask that the Alumni support the Association and the Journal, and co-operate earnestly with the officers in making our official publication a still greater success. For information regarding the Association, address the Secretary. James L. Morlan, Secretary-Treasurer, 25 E. Washington St., Chicago. For information regarding the School, address Northwestern University Dental School, 31 W. Lake St., Chicago. Northwestern University Evanston — Chicago q THE COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS, ideally located in Evanston, offers well organized courses for general educa- tion, with special preparation for the professions and for other pursuits requiring broad training, and special courses in Religious Education and in Physical Education. q THE GRADUATE SCHOOL, in Evanston, extends non- professional training and research beyond the College curric- ulum, with courses leading to advanced degrees. q THE MEDICAL SCHOOL, in Chicago, is one of the best equipped in the United States and its reputation for efficiency is well-established. Numerous hospitals in close proximity are open to students. Clinical matericJ is abundant. q THE LAW SCHOOL, the oldest in Chicago, offers unex- celled library and research facilities. Its courses leading to degrees prepare for practice in any state. q THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, on the campus in Evanston, offers a five-year course of professional education in a University environment, leading to the degrees of Bachelor of Science and Civil Engineer or Electrical Engineer. q THE DENTAL SCHOOL, in Chicago, is recognized as one of the leading schools for dental training and investigation. Its clinical facilities are unsurpassed. q THE SCHOOL OF MUSIC in three weU-equipped build- ings offers exceptional advantages for the thorough study of music, professional or otherwise. It is located in Evanston. q THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE, in Chicago and Evanston, offers professional and scientific education for business with emphasis on the training of business executives. Day and evening work, laboratory courses, and business research. q THE SCHOOL OF SPEECH, in Evanston, is a University Professioned School. It offers courses in debate, public speak- ing and interpretation. q THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, in Evanston, coordinates the pedagogical activities of the University and through the Department of Education in the College of LibersJ Arts offers courses for every type of teaching. Awards University Cer- tificate in Education. q THE MEDILL SCHOOL OF JOURNALISM, in Chicago and Evanston, offers comprehensive courses in editing, news writing, reporting, newspaper administration. For information regarding any School of the University, address the President's Office, Northwestern University Building, Chicago, Illinois. NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY BUL- LETIN is published by North- western University weekly dur- ing the academic year at Chicago, Illinois. Entered as second-class mail matter No- vember 21, 19 1 3, at the post- office at Chicago, Illinois, under act of Congress of August 24, 1 912. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage pro- vided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 191 7, authorized on June 14, 1918.